Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located on the land where the Africa, Asia and Europe continents – the Old World Lands – are closest to each other. Its capital city is Ankara. Some of its lands are on the Anatolian Peninsula and some are on Thrace that is the extension of the Balkan Peninsula. The country is surrounded on three sides by the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. The Turkish Straits connects the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. Its neighbors are Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Syria, Iraq and the Azerbaijani.

Turkey was founded with the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and thanks to a great struggle of people after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the World War I. It was founded on the former state’s lands with the majority of Turkish population and it was the only independent state amongst the successive states that were founded on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.

Turkey is a member of many international organizations including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Black Sea Economic Co-operation Organization and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005. According to the political scientists and economists, Turkey is a regional power.

Because of being surrounded by sea on three sides, the location of the mountains and the different geographical forms, there are climates with different characteristics. At coastal regions, the climate is milder. The North Anatolian Mountains and the Taurus Mountains prevents the effects of sea from going to inner regions. That is why the inner regions have continental climate.

When Turkey was founded majority of the population of 12 million were illiterate. Today this rate is 90%. The education system of Turkey is based on basic education of eight years. Later, there is the secondary education for four years. The students are accepted to universities via University Entrance Exam. There are public education courses on non-formal education basis. The open education system is also used by many students.

There were only two universities in Turkey until 1930s. These were Istanbul Technical University and Istanbul University. Today there are 167 universities. All of the cities of Turkey have a university.

Turkey has 10.984 km railway, 1.200 km watercourse, 4.621 km natural gas, 3.543 km crude oil pipe. In addition, it has 120 airports, 850 helicopter terminals. Although most of the country has highway, it is aimed to reduce the usage of highways and air ways with the Fast Train Project. It is also aimed to reduce the individual transportation vehicles thanks to the project.


Ordu is the city of Turkish Republic which is at the East Black Sea Region and it has a coast to the Black Sea. It has been a metropolis with the latest increase of the population. It has the Black Sea at the north, Tokat and Sivas cities at the south. Samsun is at the west and Giresun is at the east of the city. It became independent of Trabzon on 4 April 1920 and became a province. According to the data of Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) in 2012, it has 19 districts including the center, 53 towns and 481 villages.

The year of foundation: 1920 Population: 771.960 (2012) (The population of 148.341) Area: 5.963 km.  Number of Municipality: 53 Number of Village: 481

The Province of Ordu was founded in 400BC under the name of ‘Cotyora’ in the region of Bozukkale that is 5 km far from the city center. Cotyora means the region of Kuts. The historians state that Kut Turks were a clan that migrated to west from Caspian Lake region at 2500-2400 BC and they spoke Turkish.
The famous Professor Benna Landsberger who studied on Sumerians stated in front of Ataturk that this clan has Turkish roots at the History Congress in 1937. Many scientists say that their language was a part of Ural-Altaic languages.
Ordu Province is between the 41° North parallels and 37° and 38° East meridians. It is at the East Black Sea part of Black Sea Region. The North of the city is surrounded by the North Anatolian mountains coast rows. These mountains start close to the coast and gets higher at the inner parts. Ordu and Giresun provinces are very similar. The highest point of the city is close to Giresun border and it is the Gönderiç Hill at Aşut Obası.




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